Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Exposure Determinants of Wood Dust, Microbial Components, Resin Acids and Terpenes in the Saw- and Planer Mill Industry

AbstractObjectivesSawmill workers have an increased risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, but knowledge about exposure–response relationships is incomplete. The objective of this study was to assess exposure determinants of dust, microbial components, resin acids, and terpenes in sawmills processing pine and spruce, to guide the development of department and task-based exposure prediction models.Methods2474 full-shift repeated personal airborne measurements of dust, resin acids, fungal spores and fragments, endotoxins, mono-, and sesquiterpenes were conducted in 10 departments of 11 saw- and planer mills in Norway in 2013–2016. Department and task-based exposure determinants were identified and geometric mean ratios (GMRs) estimated using mixed model regression. The effects of season and wood type were also studied.ResultsThe exposure ratio of individual components was similar in many of the departments. Nonetheless, the highest microbial and monoterpene exposure (expressed per hour) were estimated in the green part of the sawmills: endotoxins [GMR (95% confidence interval) 1.2 (1.0–1.3)], fungal spores [1.1 (1.0–1.2)], and monoterpenes [1.3 (1.1–1.4)]. The highest resin acid GMR was estimated in the dry part of the sawmills [1.4 (1.2–1.5)]. Season and wood type had a large effect on the estimated exposure. In particular, summer and spruce were strong determinants of increased exposure to endotoxin (GMRs [4.6 (3.5–6.2)] and [2.0 (1.4–3.0)], respectively) and fungal spores (GMRs [2.2 (1.7–2.8)] and [1.5 (1.0–2.1)], respectively). Pine was a strong determinant for increased exposure to both resin acid and monoterpenes. Work as a boilerman was associated with moderate to relatively high exposure to all components [1.0–1.4 (0.8–2.0)], although the estimates were based on 13–15 samples only. Cleaning in the saw, planer, and sorting of dry timber departments was associated with high exposure estimates for several components, whereas work with transportation and stock/finished goods were associated with low exposure estimates for all components. The department-based models explained 21–61% of the total exposure variances, 0–90% of the between worker (BW) variance, and 1–36% of the within worker (WW) variances. The task-based models explained 22–62% of the total variance, 0–91% of the BW variance, and 0–33% of the WW variance.ConclusionsExposure determinants in sawmills including department, task, season, and wood type differed for individual components, and explained a relatively large proportion of the total variances. Application of department/task-based exposure prediction models for specific exposures will therefore likely improve the assessment of exposure–response associations.

Occupational exposure to dust and to fumes, work as a welder and invasive pneumococcal disease risk

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

Occupational exposures to metal fumes have been associated with increased pneumonia risk, but the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has not been characterised previously.

Methods

We studied 4438 cases aged 20–65 from a Swedish registry of invasive infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The case index date was the date the infection was diagnosed. Six controls for each case, matched for gender, age and region of residency, were selected from the Swedish population registry. Each control was assigned the index date of their corresponding case to define the study observation period. We linked cases and controls to the Swedish registries for socioeconomic status (SES), occupational history and hospital discharge. We applied a job–exposure matrix to characterise occupational exposures. We used conditional logistic analyses, adjusted for comorbidities and SES, to estimate the OR of IPD and the subgroup pneumonia–IPD, associated with selected occupations and exposures in the year preceding the index date.

Results

Welders manifested increased risk of IPD (OR 2.99, 95% CI 2.09 to 4.30). Occupational exposures to fumes and silica dust were associated with elevated odds of IPD (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.21 and OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.58, respectively). Risk associated with IPD with pneumonia followed a similar pattern with the highest occupational odds observed among welders and among silica dust exposed.

Conclusion

Work specifically as a welder, but also occupational exposures more broadly, increase the odds for IPD. Welders, and potentially others with relevant exposures, should be offered pneumococcal vaccination.

A follow-up study of occupational styrene exposure and risk of autoimmune rheumatic diseases

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

Increased risk has been suggested for autoimmune rheumatic diseases following solvent exposure. The evidence for specific solvents is limited, and little is known about exposure–response relations. Styrene is an aromatic, organic solvent and the objective of this study was to analyse the association between occupational styrene exposure and autoimmune rheumatic diseases in men and women.

Methods

We followed 72 212 styrene-exposed workers of the Danish reinforced plastics industry from 1979 to 2012. We modelled full work history of styrene exposure from employment history, survey data and historical styrene exposure measurements. We identified cases in the national patient registry and investigated gender-specific exposure–response relations by cumulative styrene exposure for different exposure time windows adjusting for age, calendar year and educational level.

Results

During 1 515 126 person-years of follow-up, we identified 718 cases of an autoimmune rheumatic disease, of which 73% were rheumatoid arthritis. When adjusting for potential confounders and comparing the highest with the lowest styrene exposure tertile, we observed a statistically non-significantly increased risk of systemic sclerosis among women (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=2.50; 95% CI 0.50 to 12.50) and men (IRR=1.86; 95 % CI 0.50 to 7.00), based on 9 and 22 cases, respectively. Results were inconsistent for the other autoimmune rheumatic diseases examined.

Conclusion

This study suggests an association between occupational styrene exposure and systemic sclerosis in men as well as in women but based on few cases. This is a new finding and has to be replicated before conclusions can be drawn.

Trajectories of self-rated health before and after retirement: evidence from two cohort studies

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

Previous studies have produced conflicting findings on the health consequences of retirement. We aimed at identifying trajectories of self-rated health over retirement transition using repeated measurements and examined which preretirement factors predicted membership to each trajectory.

Methods

The study population consisted of Finnish public sector employees from two independent cohorts (Finnish Public Sector Study (FPS), n=5776 with a 4-year follow-up interval; and Finnish Retirement and Aging Study (FIREA), n=2796 with a 1-year follow-up interval). Both cohorts included assessment of self-rated health one to three times before and one to three times after retirement (average number of measurement points: 3.7 in FPS and 3.5 in FIREA). We used latent trajectory analysis to identify trajectories of self-rated health.

Results

In both cohorts four similar trajectories were identified: ‘Sustained good health’ (47% in FPS and 74% in FIREA), ‘From good to suboptimal health’ (19% and 6%), ‘From suboptimal to good health’ (14% and 8%) and ‘Sustained suboptimal health’ (20% and 12%). There were more women and persons in high occupational status in the ‘From suboptimal to good health’ trajectory group when compared with ‘Sustained suboptimal health’ trajectory group in FPS. Those in the trajectory ‘From good to suboptimal health’ had lower occupational status and higher job strain in comparison with those in the ‘Sustained good health’ trajectory in both cohorts.

Conclusions

A large majority of public sector employees maintain their perceived health status during retirement transition. Adverse trajectory in self-rated health relate to low occupational status and work-related stressors.

Commuting time to work and behaviour-related health: a fixed-effect analysis

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

Long commuting times are linked to poor health outcomes, but the evidence is mainly cross-sectional. We examined longitudinal within-individual associations between commuting time and behaviour-related health.

Methods

Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. We selected workers who responded to a minimum of two surveys conducted every other year between 2008 and 2018. We included all study waves with self-reported commuting time (ie, the exposure, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15 or ≥15 hours/week), body mass index (based on weight and height), physical (in)activity, smoking, alcohol use and sleep problems (ie, the outcomes) (Nindividuals=20 376, Nobservations=46 169). We used conditional logistic regression for fixed effects analyses that controls for time-varying confounders by design. Analyses were stratified by working hours: normal (30–40 hours/week) or longer than normal (>40 hours/week) and adjusted for time dependent covariates: age, marital status, occupational position, presence of children, chronic disease, depressive symptoms, job strain and shift work.

Results

Those working >40 hours/week had higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51) and sleep problems (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) when they were commuting >5 hours/week than when they were commuting 1–5 hours/week. Among women working normal hours, longer commuting time associated with lower odds of problem drinking.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that lengthy commuting time increases the risk of physical inactivity and sleep problems if individuals have longer than normal weekly working hours. Effects of work arrangements that decrease commuting time should be examined in relation to health behaviours.

Mortality in a cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia: an update

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

To update the mortality experience of a previously studied cohort of 29 992 US urban career firefighters compared with the US general population and examine exposure-response relationships within the cohort.

Methods

Vital status was updated through 2016 adding 7 years of follow-up. Cohort mortality compared with the US population was evaluated via life table analyses. Full risk-sets, matched on attained age, race, birthdate and fire department were created and analysed using the Cox proportional hazards regression to examine exposure-response associations between select mortality outcomes and exposure surrogates (exposed-days, fire-runs and fire-hours). Models were adjusted for a potential bias from healthy worker survivor effects by including a categorical variable for employment duration.

Results

Compared with the US population, mortality from all cancers, mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and cancers of the oesophagus, intestine, rectum, lung and kidney were modestly elevated. Positive exposure-response relationships were observed for deaths from lung cancer, leukaemia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Conclusions

This update confirms previous findings of excess mortality from all cancers and several site-specific cancers as well as positive exposure-response relations for lung cancer and leukaemia. New findings include excess NHL mortality compared with the general population and a positive exposure-response relationship for COPD. However, there was no evidence of an association between any quantitative exposure measure and NHL.

Characterising near misses and injuries in the temporary agency construction workforce: qualitative study approach

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

To understand and characterise the construct of ‘near misses’ from the perspective of temporary construction workers and to describe the safety and health risks associated with and contributing to near misses and injuries in temporary workers in the construction industry.

Methods

Six semistructured language-sensitive (ie, English and Spanish) focus group discussions were conducted with workers (n=43) employed with temporary staffing agencies in South Florida. This convenience sample completed a demographic questionnaire prior to the focus group discussion. A general inductive approach was used to examine near misses in the construction industry and the unique safety and health concerns of temporary workers.

Results

Four broad themes describing near misses, reporting practices and workplace safety hazards in the construction industry were derived from the group discussions: (1) non-standard workers in the construction industry draw a clear distinction between near misses and injury and believe their best protections from both occur at the worker level; (2) social network structure on construction worksites is an effective way to protect workers against injury and near misses; (3) safety and health priorities and policies at the organisational level differ from those at the worker level, which contributes to workplace injury; and (4) reporting of safety concerns and near misses is influenced by injury severity.

Conclusions

Temporary workers in the construction industry are familiar with near misses but have limited resources to protect themselves against potential health and safety hazards. These non-standard workers addressed unique barriers to staying safe at work and identified potential improvements.

Occupational barriers to accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy for female sex workers living with HIV in South Africa

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

While female sex workers (FSW) are nearly 14 times more likely to be living with HIV than non-FSW, less than 40% of FSW living with HIV are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to understand how the work environment influences ART access and adherence for FSW in preparation for the Siyaphambili trial.

Methods

FSW living with HIV (n=24) and key informants (n=15) were recruited to participate in semistructured in-depth interviews using maximum variation and snowball sampling, respectively. FSW were recruited on key variants including type of sex work venue, primary work time and history of ART use. Data were collected between September and November 2017 in Durban, South Africa. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated. Data were then coded applying grounded theory in Atlas.ti.

Results

FSW experienced occupational barriers to adherence including work-related migration, substance use and theft of ART on the job. Fear of wage loss due to HIV disclosure to clients and brothel managers prevented some FSW from accessing ART at their clinic and taking medications while working. FSW employed coping strategies to overcome barriers including sharing ART with colleagues, carrying small supplies of ART and visiting the clinic prior to appointments for ART refills. Further, some FSW received adherence support from colleagues who were also living with HIV.

Conclusions

Considering these occupational pressures on FSW and supporting positive coping strategies are important when designing and implementing HIV treatment programmes. Findings suggest strengthening social cohesion and supporting differentiated care efforts to improve HIV outcomes among FSW living with HIV.

Exposure to traffic noise and gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention: a cohort study

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

Transportation noise has been associated with markers of obesity. We aimed to investigate whether road traffic and railway noise were associated with weight gain during and after pregnancy.

Methods

Among the women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, 74 065 reported on weight before and during the pregnancy (gestational week 30) and 52 661 reported on weight before and 18 months after pregnancy. Residential address history from conception to 18 months after pregnancy was obtained in national registers, and road traffic and railway noise were modelled for all addresses. Associations between noise and gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) were analysed using the linear and log-binomial regression.

Results

A 10 dB(A) higher road traffic noise was associated with an increase in GWG of 3.8 g/week (95% CI 2.3 to 5.3) and PPWR of 0.09 kg (95% CI 0.02 to 0.16). For PPWR, this association seemed confined to women who were overweight (0.17 kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.32) or obese (0.49 kg, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73) before pregnancy. Further adjustment by nitrogen dioxide reduced GWG risk estimates and slightly increased PPWR risk estimates. Railway noise ≥65 dB(A) was associated with an increase in GWG of 4.5 g/week (95% CI –2.7 to 11.6) and PPWR of 0.26 kg (95% CI –0.09 to 0.60) compared with levels <55 dB(A).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that road traffic noise is associated with weight gain during and after the pregnancy, which adds to the literature linking transportation noise to adiposity.

Predicting the duration of sickness absence spells due to back pain: a population-based study from Sweden

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

We aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for the duration of sickness absence (SA) spells due to back pain (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision: M54), using Swedish nationwide register microdata.

Methods

Information on all new SA spells >14 days from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2012 and on possible predictors were obtained. The duration of SA was predicted by using piecewise constant hazard models. Nine predictors were selected for the final model based on a priori decision and log-likelihood loss. The final model was estimated in a random sample of 70% of the SA spells and later validated in the remaining 30%.

Results

Overall, 64 048 SA spells due to back pain were identified during the 2.5 years; 74% lasted ≤90 days, and 9% >365 days. The predictors included in the final model were age, sex, geographical region, employment status, multimorbidity, SA extent at the start of the spell, initiation of SA spell in primary healthcare and number of SA days and specialised outpatient healthcare visits from the preceding year. The overall c-statistic (0.547, 95% CI 0.542 to 0.552) suggested a low discriminatory capacity at the individual level. The c-statistic was 0.643 (95% CI 0.634 to 0.652) to predict >90 days spells, 0.686 (95% CI 0.676 to 0.697) to predict >180 spells and 0.753 (95% CI 0.740 to 0.766) to predict >365 days spells.

Conclusions

The model discriminates SA spells >365 days from shorter SA spells with good discriminatory accuracy.

What characterises work and workplaces that retain their employees following acquired brain injury? Systematic review

http://oem.bmj.com/rss/current.xml - di, 14/01/2020 - 10:30
Objectives

The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review assessing workplace factors related to work retention (or return to work) in employees with acquired brain injury (ABI). Additionally, we aimed to synthesise the evidence and state of knowledge on this subject.

Methods

A database search was performed in nine relevant electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were quantitative peer-reviewed publications empirically investigating the relationship between work/workplace factors and work retention in employees following ABI. The methodological quality was determined by Effective Public Health Practice Project scoring, and evidence was synthesised narratively.

Results

Thirteen studies were included. We found moderate evidence for a negative relationship between manual work and work retention. We also found limited evidence for a U-shaped relationship between workload and complete work retention at 6 months and no relationship at 12 months; a positive relationship between managers, compared with non-managers, and faster work retention; a positive relationship between large enterprise size defined as ≥250 employees, and no relationship between large enterprise size, defined as ≥1000 employees, and work retention.

Conclusion

Relative to individual factors, there is little evidence on specific workplace factors’ relationship to work retention among employees with ABI. For most workplace factors, there were too few high-quality studies to designate evidence as more than limited or insufficient. Future studies should replicate rigorous studies of well-defined modifiable workplace factors related to work retention.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018082201.

Dynamic classification of personal microenvironments using a suite of wearable, low-cost sensors

Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Published online: 14 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41370-019-0198-2

Dynamic classification of personal microenvironments using a suite of wearable, low-cost sensors

Occupational Exposure and Carriage of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (tetW, ermB) in Pig Slaughterhouse Workers

AbstractObjectivesSlaughterhouse staff is occupationally exposed to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Studies reported high antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) abundances in slaughter pigs. This cross-sectional study investigated occupational exposure to tetracycline (tetW) and macrolide (ermB) resistance genes and assessed determinants for faecal tetW and ermB carriage among pig slaughterhouse workers.MethodsDuring 2015–2016, 483 faecal samples and personal questionnaires were collected from workers in a Dutch pig abattoir, together with 60 pig faecal samples. Human dermal and respiratory exposure was assessed by examining 198 carcass, 326 gloves, and 33 air samples along the line, next to 198 packed pork chops to indicate potential consumer exposure. Samples were analyzed by qPCR (tetW, ermB). A job exposure matrix was created by calculating the percentage of tetW and ermB positive carcasses or gloves for each job position. Multiple linear regression models were used to link exposure to tetW and ermB carriage.ResultsWorkers are exposed to tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes along the slaughter line. Tetw and ermB gradients were found for carcasses, gloves, and air filters. One packed pork chop contained tetW, ermB was non-detectable. Human faecal tetW and ermB concentrations were lower than in pig faeces. Associations were found between occupational tetW exposure and human faecal tetW carriage, yet, not after model adjustments. Sampling round, nationality, and smoking were determinants for ARG carriage.ConclusionWe demonstrated clear environmental tetracycline and macrolide resistance gene exposure gradients along the slaughter line. No robust link was found between ARG exposure and human faecal ARG carriage.

Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity at Work and Need for Recovery: A Compositional Analysis of Cross-sectional Data

AbstractObjectivesPrevious research has shown strong associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and need for recovery (NFR). However this research has only utilized self-reported measures of OPA which may be biased. Thus, there is a need for investigating if the previously documented association between self-reported OPA and NFR can be found when using technical measures of OPA. There is also the need to investigate whether older workers are particularly susceptible to increased NFR, since age-related declines in physical capacity mean that it is likely these workers will have a higher NFR for a given physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between technically measured OPA and NFR, and whether this relationship is modified by age.MethodsThis study utilized data from the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements cohort—comprising Danish workers (n = 840) from the cleaning, manufacturing, and transportation sectors. OPA was measured by accelerometers attached to the thigh and upper back for at least one work day and classified into four physical behaviour categories (sedentary, standing, light, or moderate/vigorous). NFR was measured using a shortened version of the Danish NFR scale. Analysis was conducted using linear regression and isotemporal substitution analyses for compositional data.ResultsThe overall association between OPA and NFR was statistically significant in the unadjusted model (P < 0.001), but not when adjusted for age, sex, occupation, and shift work (P = 0.166). Isotemporal substitution showed small but significant reductions in NFR when increasing sedentary time relative to other behaviours (adjusted: ΔNFR = −0.010 [−0.019; −0.001]). There were no significant interactions between age and OPA (P = 0.409).ConclusionsThis study found significant associations between OPA and NFR, but the effect sizes were small. Reallocating 30 min to sedentary behaviours from other behaviours was associated with a reduced NFR, but the effect size may not be practically relevant. Moreover, no clear modifying effects of age were identified.

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